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Some rules to Ponder.......

Aug 25, 2019

221. R1 is on first base with two outs. A called third strike is dropped by F2 and the ball rolls along the first base line. B4 and R1 have already advanced one base when F3 scoops up the ball and makes a wild throw to F5 in an attempt to retire R1 at third base. The thrown ball goes out of play or gets stuck in the fence.

Ruling - DEAD BALL and a TWO BASE AWARD; R1 is awarded home plate, and B4 is awarded third base. Each runner is awarded two bases from the time of the throw when a live thrown ball goes over or lodges in a fence (8.14.C.3, p 47)

Note: in Fastpitch, direction of the runner at the time of the errant throw is irrelevant; WHETHER ADVANCING OR RETURNING, runners are awarded two bases from the time of the throw. If the runner is between:

First base and second base - award second base and third base

Second base and third base - award third base and home

Third base and home - award home

If two runners are BOTH between first base and second base, only the lead runner is awarded two bases; the trail is awarded second base only (they can't both be on third base when the next pitch is thrown)

If two runners are both between second base and third base, BOTH runners are awarded both third base and home

222. R1 is on second base. B2 hits a pitched ball in the air to the outfield. R1 stands behind second base and not in contact with the bag to get a running start before the ball is caught. After the ball is caught, R1 advances, touching second base on her way to third base.

Ruling - LIVE BALL and R1 is declared OUT. A runner is out when she is detected taking a position for a running start behind and not in contact with a base (8.18.R, p 52)

223. R1 is on second base. The third base coach or batter yells "time". The pitcher, who has started the pitching motion, stops and does not release the ball.

Ruling - NO PITCH is declared, the ball is DEAD, and all subsequent action is canceled. No player, manager or coach shall call "Time", employ any other word or phrase, or commit any act while the ball is live and in play to effect an illegal pitch. For a first offense deemed to be minor, the offending player may be warned or the offending coach may be restricted to the bench; for a subsequent offense or one which is not minor, the umpire should EJECT the offender (6.4.E, p 37; 11.2.S & PENALTY L-T, p 59)

224. The batter bunts or swings at a pitched ball, hitting it toward the ground. The ball rebounds off the plate and hits the bat (still in the batter's hands) a second time, in fair territory, while the batter has a) both feet still in the box, b) one foot in the box and one foot in the air outside the box, or c) at least one foot touching the ground entirely outside of the batter's box.

Ruling - in a), b) and c), the ball is DEAD when the ball comes in contact with the bat a second time while it is in the batter's hands.

In a) and b), NO VIOLATION and a FOUL BALL is declared. It is a foul ball when a batted ball touches the bat in the batter's hand(s) a second time while the batter is still within the batter's box.

In c), DEAD BALL and the batter-runner is declared OUT. The batter-runner is out when she contacts the ball a second time when one foot has completely left the batter's box AND IS IN CONTACT WITH THE GROUND

(3.FOUL BALL.F, p 21; 7.14.F, p 40; 10.1.B, p 56)

225. The batter hits a pitched ball for a single to right field. The batter-runner attempts to stretch the hit into a double. The outfielder's throw hits the base umpire and allows the batter-runner to arrive safely at second base.

Ruling - LIVE BALL and the runner is SAFE at second base. There is no interference when an umpire is struck by a thrown ball


What are the two types of umpire interference?

i) when the plate umpire interferes with the catcher's throw on a steal or pick off -- the ball is DELAYED DEAD to allow the play on the runner to continue. If the runner is put out on the steal or pick off, the ball remains live; otherwise, the ball is immediately dead when the attempted putout on the steal/pickoff is unsuccessful, and all runners must return to the base occupied at the time of the pitch

ii) when the umpire is struck by a fair ball (which is over fair ground) before touching any fielder and before passing any fielder OTHER THAN THE PITCHER, the ball is DEAD, the batter-runner is awarded first base, and other runners advance only if forced by the award to the batter-runner
Aug 25, 2019

226. R1 is on second base. B2 hits a pitched ball a) above the infield, or b) on the ground. The batted ball hits R1 while the runner is standing on second base. The ball has not passed an infielder and R1 intentionally interferes with the batted ball.

Ruling - in a) and b), DEAD BALL and R1 is OUT for INTERFERENCE; B2 is awarded first base. If a runner is hit by a batted fair ball, the runner is out if they intentionally interfere. A batter-runner is awarded first base if a fair ball, other than an infield fly, becomes dead unless the preceding runner interferes so as to prevent an obvious double play (8.5.D, p 44; 8.18.N EXCEPTION, p 52)

227. R1 is on first base. B2 hits a pitched ball for a single and R1 advances to second base and then towards third base. The outfielder's throw to F5 drives R1 back towards second base. B2 has advanced past first base and is rounding second base when the two runners pass each other.

Ruling - LIVE BALL, but B2 is declared OUT when she passes R1. A runner is out when she is detected passing an unobstructed preceding runner before before such runner is out (8.18.O, p 52)

228. The defensive or offensive team does not like the base umpire's call. They feel he or she may have been blocked from seeing the play and request that (s)he consult the other umpire for the correct ruling.

Ruling - if there is reasonable doubt about a decision being in conflict with the rules (i.e., not merely judgment) the coach or captain may ask that the correct ruling be made. The Umpire making the decision may ask another Umpire for information before making the final decision. No umpire shall criticize or interfere with another Umpire's decision UNLESS ASKED TO DO SO BY THE ONE MAKING IT. The final decision shall rest with the umpire whose exclusive authority it is to make the call, and who requests the opinion of the other umpire(s) (14.8, p 62)

Exception: going for help on a check swing

229. The batter has one foot touching part of home plate when she swings and completely misses the pitched ball.

Ruling - NO VIOLATION; the batter is charged with a strike. The bat must make contact with the ball to enforce the illegally batted ball rule (foot on home plate) (7.9, p 39)

230. B1 hits a ground ball toward F6, who fields the ball and throws it toward first base in an effort to retire the batter-runner. B1 steps only on the fair portion of the double base just before F3 receives the thrown ball and the base umpire rules B1 safe. The defense appeals that B1 did not use the foul portion of the double base before B1 returns after overrunning first base.

Ruling - VALID LIVE BALL APPEAL and B1 is declared OUT. Whenever a play is being made on the batter-runner, the defense must use the white portion and the batter-runner the colored portion. If the batter-runner touches only the white portion, it is treated the same as missing the base. The batter-runner is out providing the defense appeals prior to the batter-runner returning to first base. Once the batter-runner returns to the white or colored portion, no appeal can be made (8.19.B.1, p 53)


How many charged conferences is the defense allowed?

In a regulation game, the defense is allowed THREE charged conferences without penalty. On the fourth (and each subsequent charged conference) the pitcher is disqualified FROM THE PITCHING POSITION for the remainder of the game.

There is no per-inning limit on incurring defensive charged conferences; all three may be used in the same inning if the coach chooses to do so.

Once a game progresses to a Tiebreaker situation, the defense has a limit of one charged conference per inning. Unused conferences do not carry over to the Tiebreaker. On the second (and each subsequent) charged conference in the Tiebreaker inning, the pitcher is disqualified from the pitching position.
Aug 25, 2019

231. The batter hits a pitched ball to right field for a single and attempts to reach second base. The outfielder's high throw is knocked to the ground by F4's thrown glove. F4 then picks up the ball and tags the batter-runner before she reaches the base.

Ruling - DELAYED DEAD BALL is signaled when the detached equipment TOUCHES the thrown ball (if the thrown glove doesn't touch the ball, there is no infraction). Since this is the lone runner, when she is put out, the ball becomes dead and she is awarded two bases from the time of the INFRACTION (in this case, second base and third base). When a live thrown ball (not a pitch) is touched by detached player equipment which is thrown, the runner is awarded two bases from the time of the infraction, but the ball status is delayed dead to allow the runner to advance beyond the awarded bases at her own risk, is she chooses to do so (8.14.C.2, p 47; 8.15.B.1, p 48; 10.2.B, p 57)

NOTE: The award based on the time of the infraction is unique to USSSA and is different from NFHS, USA SB and NCAA

232. R1 is on third base. B2 hits a pitched ball on the ground between the shortstop and the third baseman. F6 does or does not touch the ball . The third base coach taps or pushes R1 when he realizes the hit is through the infield.

Ruling - DELAYED DEAD BALL is signaled and the runner is declared OUT immediately for Coach's Assistance when the violation occurs. Unless it is the third out, the ball remains live and in play. A runner is out when anyone other than another runner physically assists them while the ball is in play (8.18.Y, p 53; 10.2.D, p 57)

233. R1 is on first base with two outs when B4 hits a pitched ball for a double. R1 advances toward third base but F6 is standing in her way and R1 has to go around her. B4 tries to stretch the double into a triple and is thrown out at third base. The third out is made before R1 can reach home plate.

Ruling - DELAYED DEAD BALL is signaled and OBSTRUCTION is called when the violation occurs. The ball is dead when the third out occurs. If the umpire judges that R1 would have scored prior to the third out at third base had she not been obstructed, then R1 is awarded home plate and scores. Any runner may advance when awarded a base(s) for AN ACT WHICH OCCURRED BEFORE THE BALL BECAME DEAD. All awarded bases must be touched (10.6.C, p 58)

234. R1 is on second base. B2 hits an illegal pitch and reaches first base safely. R1 is a) thrown out at third base, b) safe at third base, or c) thrown out at home plate.

Ruling - in a), b), and c), DELAYED DEAD BALL is signaled and ILLEGAL PITCH is called.when the violation occurs

In a), the ball is DEAD when R1 is put out and the ILLEGAL PITCH IS ENFORCED. If the batter does not reach first base safely (in this case, she DID) or if any runner fails to advance at least one base (R1 did NOT), the coach of the offensive team has the OPTION of:

i) the RESULT OF THE PLAY - the out on R1 stands, and B2 is placed on the base last touched at the ball become dead, presumably first base, or

ii) the PENALTY - the play is negated and the batter is awarded a BALL

In b) and c), the play stands and the illegal pitch is canceled when the batter reaches first base safely AND all other runners safely advance at least one base

(6.3.A-C, p 37; 10.2.A)

235. R1 is on first base with one out. B3 is awarded a base on balls which forces R1 to second base. Before the next pitch it is discovered that B3 used an a) altered, or b) non-approved bat.

Ruling - in a) and b), the ball is DEAD immediately. Any runner advances related to the batter becoming a batter-runner (including a batted ball, hit by pitch, uncaught third strike, or a base on balls) are negated if the runner is not put out. The bat is REMOVED and the batter AND her head coach are EJECTED (7.14.A, p 40)


i) any runner advances during the at-bat due to a stolen base, wild pitch, or passed ball stand

ii) if the illegal bat is not discovered until AFTER a pitch to the next batter, it is no longer legally attributable to the previous batter and no penalty may be enforced. The bat is removed, but all action related to her at-bat stands


What are the four appeals, and when and how must they be made?

Hint: A check swing and disputing a call are not appeals!

i) MISSING or FAILURE TO PROPERLY TOUCH a base - mus be made before the base runner legally cures her error or the next pitch (whichever happens first) - may be live or dead - if live, must legally tag the runner or the base when appealing


On these two appeals, if the ball has become dead, runners must be given an opportunity to fulfill their base running responsibilities before a dead-ball appeal can be made

iii) BATTING OUT OF ORDER - must be made before a pitch to the next batter - dead ball only, verbally - may be appealed by either team until the improper at-bat is completed; thereafter, only the defense may appeal

iv) MAKING A TURN AT FIRST BASE (attempting to advance to second base) - live ball only - must be made by tagging the runner before she legally returns to first base or safely advances to second base

Aug 25, 2019

236. A thrown ball makes contact with a bat or glove left laying outside the dugout (in live ball territory) by the a) defensive, or b) offensive team.

Ruling - in a) and b), the ball is DEAD and a BLOCKED BALL is ruled.

In a), when a blocked ball is caused by the defense, the umpire should impose such penalties and/or make any awards as in the Umpire's judgment will nullify the act. That is the language of the rule. Having said that, it is general practice to apply the overthrow rule and award all runners TWO BASES from the time of the throw

In b), when the offensive team causes a blocked ball and no play is obvious, no player is out, but all runners must return to the last base touched when the ball became dead

(8.14.E.2, p 48; 8.18.AA, p 53)

237. R1, who is on first base, attempts to steal second base. She runs out of the base line while advancing. F2 throws the ball wildly into center field.

Ruling - LIVE BALL and NO VIOLATION. R1's advance is legal. There is no penalty for running out of the base line and a runner's base path is not established until a defensive player is attempting (or about to attempt) to tag a runner (3.BASE PATH, P 18; 8.18.A, p 50)

238. F1 is cut or has a blister on the pitching hand and the injury is bleeding. The manager asks permission to use a bandage to cover the wound.

Ruling - the game must be stopped immediately to allow the player who is bleeding to treat or cover the wound. If treatment can be administered in a reasonable amount of time, the player does not have to leave the game. If excessive time is involved, the player must be be removed and the re-entry rule would apply.

The pitcher's fingers, hand, wrist, forearm or elbow MAY BE TAPED for injury, providing such tape is a neutral color

(5.10, p 33-34; 6.1.I.2, p 36; USSSA Communicable Disease Protocol, p 73)

239. The defensive coach requests and is granted time by the umpire. She comes onto the field and confers only with F6. Prior to resumption of play, F6 walks over to the pitching circle, picks up the resin bag and chats briefly with F1 before returning to her defensive position.

Ruling - this is a CHARGED DEFENSIVE CONFERENCE. Regardless of F6's subsequent actions, when a coach or bench personnel requests time-out to meet with any offensive or defensive personnel, a conference is charged (3.CONFERENCE, CHARGED, p 20)

240. R1 is on first base. B2 hits a pitched ball in the air between F1 and F3. Both defensive players misplay the ball. F4, who is backing up the play, decides to try and play the batted ball, and in doing so, bumps into R1, who is ten feet off first base going towards second base.

Ruling - DELAYED DEAD BALL is signaled and OBSTRUCTION is called, provided R1 does not intentionally interfere; F4 is not entitled to initial play protection on this play because F1 and F3 misplayed the ball. Obstruction is the act of a defensive team member which hinders a runner unless the fielder is making an initial play on a batted ball (3.OBSTRUCTION, p 23)


Where is the pitcher's circle located?

The pitcher's circle is defined (1.2.H, p 8) as 16 feet in diameter (8-foot radius) drawn from the mid-point of the front edge of the pitcher's plate, regardless of which distance the plate is set at

This means that:

For 10U (35' pitching plate), the front of the circle is at 27' and the back of the circle is at 43'

For 12U (40' plate), the front is at 32' and the back is at 48'

For 13U and above (43' plate), the front is at 35' and the back is at 51'

The circle floats as the level of play changes. If you are working on a field which has permanent markings which are not correct for the game you are calling, you need to review this with the coaches at the pre-game. When batter's boxes are mis-marked (i.e.- smaller baseball boxes), catcher's boxes are misdrawn (LL trapezoid or baseball small catcher's box), the pitching circle is drawn improperly, or the pitcher's plate is too small (18" instead of 24"), the rules must be enforced using the proper dimensions even if they are imaginary (if they are properly chalked, it is foreseeable that they may disappear during the game anyway)

Ground rules may NOT be formulated to accommodate incorrect markings if they supersede the prescribed playing rules. If it's wrong, you have to call it where it's SUPPOSED to be, NOT where it is!
Dec 15, 2018
Ground rules may NOT be formulated to accommodate incorrect markings if they supersede the prescribed playing rules. If it's wrong, you have to call it where it's SUPPOSED to be, NOT where it is!
Standard part of plate meeting: “And, as you can see, Lenny from Parks & Rec had a few too many last night, so I’ll be using my judgement on these lines....”
Aug 25, 2019

241. R1 is on second base when B2 hits a pitched ball for a single to center field. R1 is deliberately obstructed by F5 and unable to touch third base and continues on to home plate where she scores. After all play has stopped the defense makes a dead ball appeal on R1 for missing third base.

Ruling - DELAYED DEAD BALL should be signaled and OBSTRUCTION called when the infraction occurs; the appeal should be DENIED. If a runner (despite her good-faith effort to do so) is physically unable to touch a base because of an obstruction, she should not be called out for failure to touch the base. The responsibility of the obstructed runner is similar to the responsibility when a base is dislodged; in both cases, a good-faith effort to touch the required base/place (as judged by the umpire) shifts the benefit of doubt to the runner. Depending on the physical nature of the obstruction, the offending player might also be issued a warning for unsporting behavior. (8.6.E, p 44; 8.13, p 46; 11.2.T, p 59)

242. R1 is on second base and R2 is on first base with no outs when B3 hits a pitched ball on the ground to F6. R1 stays at second base and R2 advances to second base as F6 throws to first base to retire B3. The defense does not notice that R1 and R2 are both on second base and the ball is thrown to F1, who is standing in the circle and makes no play on either runner.

Ruling - the out on B3 at first base TERMINATES THE FORCE PLAY; accordingly, R1, the runner who first legally occupied second base, is entitled to that base. If no play is made by F1, two outcomes are possible:

i) if EITHER runner comes off the base while F1 has possession in the circle, the ball is DEAD and the runner is called OUT for a LOOK-BACK VIOLATION. Only one may be called out for the LBR, so if both come off, the first to violate is called out

ii) if NEITHER runner comes off the base and no play is made, then after an appropriate amount of time the umpire should call DEAD BALL and declare R2 (the runner not entitled to the base) OUT

(8.2, p 41; 8.6.G, p 44)

243. The batter swings and misses a pitched ball delivered slowly. She has time to reset and swing again, making contact the second time and batting the ball a) fair, or b) foul.

Ruling - in a) and b), DEAD BALL when the ball is batted and the batter is charged with a STRIKE; if it is the third strike, the batter is out. A strike is charged to the batter when a pitched ball is struck at and missed; the batter's subsequent action (contacting the ball) results in a dead ball and eliminates the requirement that the third strike be caught to complete the put out (7.5.C, p 38; 10.1.B, p 56)

244. R1 is on third base with one out. B3 hits a pitched ball in the air to shallow left field. In disgust, B3 throws her bat against the backstop. F7 fails to catch the ball and R1 a) scores or b) is thrown out at home.

Ruling - in a) and b), LIVE BALL and ALL ACTION STANDS. Once play is complete, the umpire should call TIME and EJECT B3 and ask the coach to provide a eligible substitute (or courtesy runner, if B3 is the pitcher or catcher of record) who will be placed on the base B3 had attained when time was called (11.2.V, p 59)

Comment: if no eligible substitute (or CR, if applicable) is available to replace the ejected player, an Absent Player situation is created and the vacancy on the base would result in an OUT. The Short-Handed Rule LCAB exception (5.2.A.1.EXCEPTION) is not available when a runner is ejected -- only when she is INJURED

245. The bases are loaded. The batter hits a pitched ball in the air to right-center field. F8 and F9 collide and both are seriously injured. All the runners advance and cross home plate before F3 or F4 can retrieve the batted ball.

Ruling - when a player(s) becomes injured such that, in the umpire's judgment, immediate attention is required, the umpire should call DEAD BALL and allow or seek first aid. Base runners should be awarded any base(s) that would have been reached, in the umpire's judgment, had the ball not become dead. (5.9.A, p 33; 10.1.P, p 57)


What rules govern the on-deck circle?

i) the on-deck circle should be at least 30 feet from home plate, if space allows
ii) its radius is 2 1/2 feet
iii) neither team's players may use the other team's on-deck circle
iv) the on-deck batter is not required to occupy the on-deck circle
Aug 25, 2019

246. The batter is not ready to assume the batting position. However, the pitcher is standing on the pitcher's plate ready to pitch.

Ruling - the pitcher is not allowed to attempt a quick return of the ball before the batter IS IN POSITION or is off balance as a result of the previous pitch. The plate umpire should indicate to the pitcher to hold the pitch by signaling with an outstretched arm (opposite to the batter) with the palm of the hand facing the pitcher (6.4.C, p 37)

247. R1 is on second base and R2 is on first base with two outs. B5 hits a pitched ball in the air to right field. R1 and R2 believe there is only one out and remain on their respective bases. The batted ball clears the outfield fence in fair territory for a home run. The umpires notice that B5 is between first and second bases while R2 is still standing on first base.

Ruling - DEAD BALL; however, B5 is declared OUT the moment she passes an unobstructed preceding runner (in this case, R2). Because the third out is NOT a force out, it is a TIME PLAY. R1 would score only if she reaches home plate PRIOR TO the third out (4.2.A, p 26; 8.18.O, p 52)

248. The plate umpire is notified by the offended team that an opposition player is an illegal re-entry after the player enters the game and a) before, or b) after a pitch is thrown.

Ruling - in a), NO VIOLATION has occurred until the illegal player enters (or re-enters) the game AND a pitch has occurred. Any action before one pitch occurs is correctable. In b), the illegal player and her head coach are EJECTED. In addition, the following penalties apply:

i) if the illegal player is a batter, has completed her at bat, and before the next pitch, she is also OUT and any advances due to her becoming a batter-runner are negated. All outs recorded on the play stand

ii) if the illegal player is a base runner and still on base, she is OUT

iii) if the illegal player is a fielder and has made a play, the offensive team has the option of 1) the result of the play, or 2) replaying the previous pitch

(8.7, p 32-33)

249. The shortstop is wearing a first baseman's mitt.

Ruling - LEGAL, provided the mitt conforms to the maximum specifications on glove size. Any player may wear a glove or mitt, provided it conforms to the size specs (2.9.C, p 11-12)

250. A pitched ball is hit in the air and close to the stands. The outfielder leans over into dead ball territory in an attempt to catch the fly ball. A spectator interferes with the defensive player or touches the ball. The outfielder does not make the catch.

Ruling - DEAD BALL, and either a home run or foul ball, based on position of the ball when it went into dead ball territory. A spectator in not guilty of interference if they hinder a fielder WHO IS REACHING INTO A DEAD BALL AREA to make a play on a batted or thrown ball (8.14.E.1 EXCEPTION, p 48)


How often can a pitcher return to the pitching position?

A player may be removed as a pitcher and returned as a pitcher once per inning, provided the return as a pitcher does not violate the pitching, substitution, or charged conference rules
Feb 13, 2021
So the bandaid on the blistering index finger of pitching hand is illegal. This is why super glue is applied before blister occurs. It’s also illegal but harder to detect. It gives no advantage to the pitch only protects the pitcher from injury.
I always love this statement.... If there were no advantage, then why do it? It allows the pitcher to throw pitches she wouldn't be able to throw otherwise without risking developing a blister. THAT is the advantage, and since it is a foreign substance it is illegal. So, please, stop saying that things like this, or some questionable footwork on a pitch, doesn't provide an advantage. IF THERE WERE NO ADVANTAGE, no matter how slight, WHY WOULD THE PLAYER DO IT?
Aug 25, 2019

251. B6 is starting her turn at bat. B8 wishes to get in some extra practice swings and moves into the on-deck circle.

Ruling - ILLEGAL; only the on-deck batter (the offensive player who follows the batter in the batting order, either because she is listed as such on the lineup or she is an eligible substitute who MAY be entered as a pinch-hitter for the next batter) is entitled to occupy the on-deck circle.

However, there is a bigger issue here. If this is a "one-off" situation, it COULD be a potential batting out of order situation. The umpire should not compromise a potential BATTING OUT OF ORDER APPEAL unless the on-deck batter issue is brought to his/her attention by the defensive team

If it is a pattern of behavior, i.e, the offense habitually is placing someone in the on-deck circle who is not the OBD (but then sending the correct batter up to bat), the practice should stopped by the umpire

(3.ON-DECK BATTER, p 23; 7.1.A, p 37)

252. A batted ball hits home plate and, without touching any foreign object, settles on fair ground between the pitcher's plate and home plate.

Ruling - LIVE BALL and FAIR; as long as it does not touch a foreign object to the natural ground, a batted ball which settles on or over fair territory between home and first base or home and third base is a FAIR BALL. Home plate, the bases and the pitching plate are NOT foreign objects (3.FAIR BALL, p 20)

253. R1 is on second base and R2 is on first base with one out. The batter hits a pitched ball above the infield and the plate umpire signals and calls "Infield Fly, the batter is out." The infielder intentionally drops the ball and then tags R1 who has wandered off second base.

Ruling - LIVE BALL and a DOUBLE PLAY. The infield fly rule TAKES PRECEDENCE over the intentionally dropped ball rule. On an infield fly, runners advance at their own risk (8.17.H EFFECT, p 49-50)

Note: The intentional dropped ball rule is disregarded because the infield fly rule protects the base runners. Runners are not forced to leave their bases, but if they do, they are in jeopardy and may be played on

254. R1 is on third base and R2 is on second base with no outs. B3 singles to score R1, who is closely followed by R2. R2 a) touches home plate, or b) fails to touch home plate. In both cases R1 failed to touch home plate on her initial pass.

Ruling - in a) and b), once R2 scores (or apparently scores), R1's right to cure her base running error is terminated and she is liable for appeal. Any runner who misses a base while advancing may not return to touch the missed base IF A FOLLOWING RUNNER HAS SCORED

In a), if the defense properly appeals R1 missing home, R1 is declared OUT (the third out) and R2's run is negated. If the third out is a base running infraction, runs scored by a FOLLOWING RUNNER do not count.

In b), if the defense properly appeals R2 missing home, R2 is declared OUT (the third out) but R1's run would count because she scored BEFORE the third out. However, the defense could still properly make a FOURTH-OUT APPEAL on R1 to negate her run

(4.2.C.3, p 26; 8.6.C, p 44; 8.6.H, p 45; 9.6.C, p 55)

255. R1 is on third base, R2 is on second base, and R3 is on third base with one out. B5 hits the next pitched ball on the ground toward F4. R3 is tagged out by F4 and then interferes with F4's attempt to play on B5 at first base. Meanwhile, R1 a) is between third base and home plate, or b) has scored before R3 can cause interference.

Ruling - in a) and b), DEAD BALL and INTERFERENCE. If a retired runner interferes and in the judgment of the Umpire, another runner could have been put out, the Umpire shall declare THE RUNNER CLOSEST TO HOME OUT. In both situations, B6 should lead off the next inning, since B5 became a batter-runner

In a), R1 is declared the OUT for R3's interference (the third out) and the inning is over

In b), R2 is declared OUT and R1's run counts. The out on R3 terminates the force play on R1 and R2, so the third out on R3 is a TIME PLAY -- not a force out. For a given runner, a force play ends if a following runner is put out. Since R1 scored before the third out, her run counts

(3.FORCE PLAY, p 21); 8.18.H NOTE 2, p 51)


Where must the pitcher's feet be placed in order to comply with the pitching rule?

When the pitcher is taking (or simulating) taking her sign on the pitching plate:

1) the PIVOT FOOT must be in contact with the pitching plate

2) the NON-PIVOT FOOT is no longer required to be in contact with the pitching plate, and A STEP BACK IS ALLOWED (EVEN IF THE FOOT "STARTS BACK"), provided the step back begins before the hands separate

Both feet must be within or partially within the 24" width of the pitching plate